Apple introduced access controls to Swift with the release of Xcode 6 Beta 4 and accompanying documentation (revision history).. The approach they have taken contrasts strongly with that taken by languages like C++, C# and Java in that the controls do not limit access based on the class hierarchy but instead limit based on the file and module.
Even variables declared private can be accessed from other classes and functions that reside within the same file. This allows properties and functions to be declared private but still accessible to free functions and operators defined particularly to operate with that class. It avoids some of the complexity that has C++ having "friend" classes and functions.